Pathogenic viability of wheat rust diseases in the southern and eastern Mediterranean region: current status, challenges, and regional collaboration
K. NAZARI1, Turkey-ICARDA Regional Cereal Rust Research Center
The wheat yellow, stem and leaf rust diseases pose continues threat to wheat production in Central West Asia and North Africa (CWANA) and Mediterranean region. The rust pathogens are capable of rapidly developing new virulence to resistance genes following the Boom and Bust disease cycle. Considering the transboundary nature of the rust pathogens, regional monitoring of rust pathogens and information exchange are the first and foremost requirements in disease resistance mitigation strategy. In response to a call for regional rust research collaboration, the Turkey-ICARDA regional cereal rust research center (RCRRC) was established in Izmir in 2013 and since then the center has coordinated the regional rust surveillance and Trap Nurseries and since 2018 regional race analysis of Yr and Sr was carried out using a Cereal Rust Biosafety Laboratory at RCRRC. A regional precision wheat rust phenotyping platform was also established within the RCRRC which has provided precise field phenotyping data for more than 60,000 wheat accession from the international and national breeding programs. The RCRRC has received more than more than 1000 Yr and Sr samples from Middle east, Mediterranean region and East Africa since 2018. Using differential varieties and molecular marker approaches, it was evident that most of the Yr and Sr rust samples from these regions, have common virulence structures with the European races. This shows similarity of the rust races and freely movements of the rust pathogens. In current presentation, regional race analysis and Trap Nurseries, regional collaboration for precision phenotyping capacity will be presented and discussed.
Session topic: Invasive pathogens and new emerging plant diseases, Integrated Disease Management
Dr. Kumarse Nazari is the currently leading the Turkey-ICARDA Regional Cereal Rust Research Center (RCRRC), which is hosted by Aegean Agricultural Research Institute (AARI), Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry of Republic of Turkey in Izmir Turkey. The RCRRC has established as collaborative project between Agricultural Research and Policy General Directorate (TAGEM) and ICARDA with collaboration with CIMMYT and to address 1) regional rust surveillance in CWANA and Caucuses region, 2) regional rust race analysis of yellow, stem, and leaf rust diseases, 3) regional precession phenotyping platform for rust resistance screening, and 4) to provide capacity building and degree and non-degree training on different aspects of pathology and breeding for rust resistance. Dr. Nazari has joined ICARDA as Senior Scientist and head of cereal pathology team since 2008 until 2012 and then relocated from ICARDA head quarter in Aleppo, Syria to the RCRRC in Izmir. He has obtained his PhD on wheat yellow rust University of Sydney, Plant Breeding Institute, Australia. Before then, he was working as wheat rust pathologist since 1992 at Seed and Plant Improvement Institute (SPII) in Iran. During his carrier he has contributed to more than 30 peer reviewed articles and more than 80 conference abstracts and few book chapters. Along with his long experience in collaboration with wheat breeding programs, Dr. Nazari has international reputation on rust race analysis, particularly of yellow rust and stem rust and regional coordination for BGRI rust surveillance in CWANA and Caucasus region.
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1. Smart Functional Biofumigation (SFB) as an Innovative technology for Plant Disease Control by means of Biotechnology.
A New Vision for Plant Disease Management under Global GAP and Organic Standards.
2. Functional Synergistic Biofumigation (FSB) as an innovative Technology for Controlling Soil-borne Plant Pathogens and Root-knot Nematode under Global GAP and Organic Agriculture Systems.
2. We adopted a new and innovative technology for controlling soil-borne pathogens and Root-knot nematode with a sustainable and eco-friendly suitable for intensive agricultural systems in developing countries. This technology is suitable for use in organic or Global GAP vegetable and fruit production systems. We aimed to develop tactics that build healthy soils and promote microbial ecosystems that challenge these potentially devastating, broad spectrum pathogens. This technology is suitable for intensive agricultural systems that widespread in many developing countries in Africa and Asia. We adapted three innovative approaches of synergistic biofumigation (Syn-Biofum) to control soilborne diseases, root-knot nematode and aggressive weeds. Our approaches are synergistic physical-biofumigation, synergistic biocontrol-biofumigation, and synergistic chemical-biofumigation. These technologies can efficiently suppress soil-borne diseases, plant parasitic nematodes, and aggressive weeds instead of Methyl Bromide (MB) in one step and in a short period less than 25 days. This is the reason why this technology is suitable for intensive agricultural systems. These new technologies are eco-friendly, safe, cheap and can work under organic agricultural and global gap systems worldwide. We are working by these technologies here in Egypt and we developed an Ecofriendly biofumigated compost companies that produce more than 360,000 ton/year. This is a unique technology and we are working across Egypt in Organic and global gap agricultural systems.
We adopted new technologies for biofumigation and defined new terminology called Functional Synergistic Biofumigation (FSB). This paper will describe three main mechanisms as follows that can efficiently suppress soilborne diseases, plant-parasitic nematodes, and aggressive weeds in different soil types worldwide. A simple example; in European countries, most of the agricultural soils are mainly acidic soils while on the other hand, most of the African and Middle East countries are mainly alkaline soils. So, for this is the reason our new technologies were selected to modify common biofumigation to be an efficient substitute for Methyl Bromide in controlling the three main problems, i.e. soil-borne plant diseases, plant parasitic nematodes and parasitic weeds. As we worked with these modified techniques of Functional Syn-Biofum, we succeeded in solving these fatal problems in Egypt, Sudan, Tunisia, Ghana, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and Pakistan, and we will show clearly those three new technologies that were adopted for Soilborne diseases, nematodes, and aggressive weeds. These modified mechanisms investigated were: 1. Functional Synergistic Physical–Biofumigation 2. Functional Synergistic Biocontrol–Biofumigation 3. Functional Synergistic Chemical–Biofumigation We have to declare that each mechanism has certain advantages that suitable for each soil type and can be recommended under certain conditions. We will emphasize the share our experience in these novel technologies and its recommended applications to be used worldwide for controlling those above-mentioned soil problems.
We could conclude that our new innovative biofumigation technologies can be used worldwide to cope with different soil conditions either alkaline like those in the Middle East or acidic soils like those in Europe and to solve not only the soil-borne plant pathogens but also both root-knot nematode and aggressive weeds. Moreover, our modified technologies can be adopted and work efficiently against these soil contaminations by those pathogens and pests compared with other banned chemical pesticides i.e. Methyl Bromide that was banned since 2005 that cannot used in both Global GAP and Organic agriculture systems. Finally, our innovative, functional synergistic biofumigation (FSB) technologies are ecofriendly and cheap, feasible and can be applied worldwide.
Dr. Mohamed Salem is an Associate Professor of Plant Pathology and Biotechnology. He is a consultant of organic agriculture for more than 25 years. He is one of the best consultants worldwide in Biofumigation and modified biofumigation for controlling soil-borne plant pathogens and Root-knot nematode by means of biotechnology. He is working in Egypt and many African countries on mycotoxins control in stored grains, and poultry feed through an innovative technologies He is supervising more than 23 post-graduate students in many aspects in Plant Pathology, Organic Agriculture, Post-harvest technologies, Medicinal Mushroom Biotechnology, Composting, and Agricultural waste management by means of biotechnology. Dr. Salem has many success stories in Organic farming in Egypt. Finally, He is working in food and feed safety in Asia and Africa.
Session Title: Diseases of major food crops in the eastern and southern Mediterranean region and their control
K. Makkouk received his B. Sc. in Agriculture from Cairo University (1963), his M. Sc. in plant pathology from Louisiana State University (1971) and his Ph. D. degree from Univesity of California at Riverside (1974). Following graduation he served as (i) a researcher with CNRS (1974-1985), (ii) professor of plant pathology (part time), Faculty of Agriculture, AUB (1977-1985), (iii) senior scientist with the International Center for Agricultural Research in Dry Areas (ICARDA), Aleppo, Syria (1985-2002), (iv) President of Medina University, Tripoli, Lebanon (2002-2004), (v) Regional coordinator, Nile Valley and Red Sea Regional Program, ICARDA, Cairo, Egypt (2005-2007), (vi) Advisor for Agriculture and Environment, CNRS, Beirut, Lebanon (2008-2018).
Dr. Makkouk contributed to the scientific knowledge through 174 articles in refereed journals, 27 articles in meetings proceedings and 16 chapters in books by international publishers. In addition, Dr. Makkouk played a leadership role within national, regional and international scientific communities. He is a founding member, secretary-treasurer, vice-president and president of the Arab Society of Plant Protection (ASPP), and at present he serves as the Editor-in-Chief of the Arab Journal of Plant Protection published by ASPP. He also served as member, board member, vice-president and president of the Mediterranean Phytopathological Union (MPU). Furthermore, Dr. Makkouk served as an active member in a number of international professional scientific groups such as (i) Special Projects Committeee of the International Society of Plant Pathology (1983-1988), (ii) Chairman of the Mediterranean Fruit Improvement Council Steering Committee (1983-1999), (iii) Member of of the Plant Virus Sub-committee of the International Committee for Taxonomy of Viruses (1988-1999), and (iv) Executive Secretary, International Working Group on Legume Viruses (1994-1996). At present, Dr. Makkouk is serving as vice-President of the International Society of Plant Pathology (2018-2023). Dr. Makkouk also guided 25 graduate students (M. Sc. and Ph. D.) to conduct their thesis research in his laboratory.
Phytoplasmal and viral diseases of fruit crops in the Eastern Mediterranean countries.
E. Choueiri. Department of Plant Protection, Lebanese Agricultural Research Institute, Tal Amara, P.O. Box 287, Zahlé, Lebanon
Fruit crops including stone and pome fruits and grapes are important crops adapted to the eastern Mediterranean region. Losses in these crops in terms of quality and quantity are reported from these countries due to viral and phytoplasmal infections. Almond witches’broom associated with the presence of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma phoenicium’ is responsible for the death of more than 100,000 almond and peach trees in Lebanon. In Egypt, serious economical loss due to infection with ESFY phytoplasma on apricots and peaches are reported. However, in Turkey ESFY disease was mostly detected in symptomatic apricot and plum. In Jordan, aster yellows phytoplasma (16SrI) affecting peach trees was reported in addition to the recent incidence of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma solani’ infecting plum. On pome fruits, pear decline induced by Ca P. pyri has been observed on pear cultivars in Lebanon and in pear and quince orchards in Turkey. Some apple varieties were infected with apple proliferation disease in Turkey. Ca. Phytoplasma solani, the causal agent of bois noir in grapevine has been recorded in Lebanon, Syria, Turkey and Jordan associated with typical grapevine yellows, whereas Ca. Phytoplasma omanense’ was detected in a grapevine sample, cultivar Syrah in Lebanon. Many viruses were recorded on stone fruits such as PNRSV, PDV, ApMV, ACLSV in most countries, whereas APLPV, PPV and others were detected only in some countries. On grapes, GLRaV-1, GLRaV-2, GLRaV-3, GFLV, GFkV, GVA and GVB were the most common viruses, whereas GLRaV-4 strain 6, GPGV, GVE, GVF and others were less common in some countries.
Session topic: Diseases of major food crops in the eastern and southern Mediterranean region
Elia Choueiri earned his B.Sc. degree in agricultural engineering from ESIAM-USJ in 1990, his M.Sc. in Plant Virology from CIHEAM-Bari in 1992 and his PhD in Plant Protection from Bari University, Italy in 1997. Since 1998, he joined the Lebanese Agricultural Research Institute in Lebanon (LARI) as a research scientist in plant pathology/virology and head of Plant Protection Department. Throughout his career of 22 years at LARI, his research focused on development projects that included the evaluation of the sanitary status of major crops such as potato, wheat, legumes, pepper, tomato, stone fruits, pome fruits, grapevine, olives and citrus in Lebanon in reference to viral and phytoplasmal diseases in collaboration with European Agricultural Institutes and Universities and international organizations. He served as national coordinator and expert for several projects dealing with plant diseases, certification aspects, assessment of the occurrence of quarantine diseases (Brown rot and ring rot on potato, Plum pox virus, fire blight, Xylella fastidiosa, etc.) in collaboration with International Institutions. He is also interested on Integrated Pest management (IPM) and Climate change impact on agricultural pests and diseases. The most important scientific achievements of Dr. Choueiri were the discovery and characterization of a large number of plant diseases in Lebanon, save native genotypes of strategic fruit tree species, development of a coherent and modern legislative framework in the field of production of certified propagation material, improvement of the Department of Plant Protection-Tal Amara laboratories and development of standardized and sensitive methods to identify the major plant pathogens and quarantine diseases of fruit trees and vegetables according to international standards. He attended several conferences, international training courses in Plant Virology, Phytoplasma diseases, Bacteriology and Mycology and contributed to the scientific knowledge through 85 papers in refereed journals, 5 papers in non-refereed journals, 59 papers in international conferences, 15 papers in regional and national Conferences, 8 chapters in international books, 3 scientific presentations in international exhibitions, 14 booklets and 7 extension bulletins in the field of plant diseases.
He has an adjunct appointment as a Professor of Plant Virology, Phytoplasmology, Phytopathology, Certification, Plant Diseases Diagnosis at the Faculties of Agriculture in the Lebanese University and Saint Joseph University (ESIAM) and at the Faculty of Sciences IV, Lebanese University and supervisor of many scientific theses in Lebanon and abroad. He is an active member in several scientific societies such as Arab Society for Plant Protection (ASPP), Mediterranean Phytopathological Union (MPU), American Phytopathological Society (APS), International Council of Virus and Virus-like Diseases of Grapevine (ICVG) and International Phytoplasmologist Working Group (IPWG). He is a reviewer for Journal of Phytopathology, Journal of Virological Methods, Phytopathologia Mediterranea, Plant Disease and Arab Journal of Plant Protection (and member of the Editorial Board 2015-2020). He won the CNRS Fifth Annual Research Excellence Award, in Agricultural Sciences in recognition of his distinguished scientific research in “Plant Protection” in 2015.
Epidemiology and management of legume and cereal viruses in Arab and Mediterranean region
In the Arab and Mediterranean region, cool-season food legumes (chickpea, faba bean, lentil and pea) are infected naturally by many viruses, and the number of viruses involved continues to increase. However, at any speciﬁc location only a few of these viruses are of economic concern. Yield losses resulting from virus attack vary widely, from little, as in the case of Broad bean mottle virus in Tunisia and Morocco, to complete crop failure when conditions permit widespread virus infection at the vulnerable early plant growth stage, as with Faba bean necrotic yellows virus in Egypt and Syria. Cereal crops (wheat, barley and oat) in Arab and Mediterranean region are also affected by viruses, mainly Barley yellow dwarf virus-PAV and it is reported to occur in epidemic levels in only few countries of this region including Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia. Epidemic spread of most viral diseases was always associated with high vector populations and activity. Although virus disease management can be achieved through the combined effect of several approaches, development of resistant genotypes is undoubtedly one of the most promising control components. Experience gathered over the last few decades clearly showed that no single method of virus disease control suffices to reduce yield losses in legume crops. Some progress was made on the disease management of some legume and cereal viruses using a combination of healthy seed, host resistance, cultural practices (such as adjustment of planting date, plant density, roguing of infected plants early in the season) and chemical vector control.
Safaa Kumari is a Head of Seed Health Laboratory/Plant Virologist at the International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA) (https://www.icarda.org/), Lebanon, with more than 30 years of research experience in the field of Plant Virology. Her research focus on virus diseases affecting legume and cereal crops: Identification, development of diagnostic kits, etiology and epidemiology, development of screening methodology to identify sources of virus resistance, control measures and virus disease management options. The lack of diagnostic capabilities in the national agricultural research programs in Central & West Asia and North Africa (CWANA) is a bottleneck for virus research and control of losses caused by viruses. A prerequisite for such work is the identification and characterization of viruses affecting cereal and legume crops. Over the last 25 years Dr Kumari prepared 20 different kits (15 for legume and 5 for cereal viruses) and made them available to different NARS laboratories in CWANA, to be used for monitoring virus spread in crops, and for testing for seed-borne viruses. Host resistance is the backbone of virus disease management strategies of all crops including cereals and legumes. Dr Kumari developed efficient and reliable screening methods to permit screening of a large number of genotypes annually using artificial inoculation. Using these techniques, she screened thousands of barley, wheat, faba bean, chickpea and lentil genotypes for their reaction to the most of the economically important viruses in the region. Dr Kumari contributed to the scientific knowledge through 120 papers in refereed journals, 14 papers in meetings proceedings, 8 chapters in international books, and 120 presentations in scientific meetings. Dr Kumari has played a vital role in growth of the Arab Society for Plant Protection (ASPP). The Society, which was established in 1981 with around 50 founding members, has now grown to currently have 700 members. It is now considered the most active network of scientists in the region, holding a regional scientific congress every three years, and attracting 400-500 scientists in each event. Dr Kumari served as the ASPP Chairperson of the Publication Committee 2004-2009 & 2017-2020; ASPP Chairperson of Translation Committee 2010-2017. The scientific Journal (https://ajpp.asplantprotection.org/), published by the ASPP is considered the most prestigious agricultural journal in the region. Dr. Kumari is now the Associate Editor (2003-persent) of this journal.
Fusarium head blight and crown rot diseases of wheat in Algeria and other southern Mediterranean countries: distribution, identification and pathogenicity of associated species
H. BOUREGHDA. Laboratory of Phytopathology and Molecular Biology, department of botany, The National Higher School of Agronomy (ENSA), El Harrach, Algiers, Algeria.
Fusarium head blight (FHB) and crown rot (CR) of wheat are worldwide serious diseases which may affect yield and also kernel contamination by mycotoxins. FHB occurs when prolonged wet weather coincides with anthesis. CR is a chronic problem where dry climatic conditions are present and when continuous wheat cropping is adopted. In the southern Mediterranean countries, climatic conditions are conducive for both diseases that can coexist. In Algeria, CR is more widespread because wheat is grown much more in arid and semi-arid regions; whereas FHB is restricted to humid and sub-humid stages where also CR is present. In Tunisia, FHB was also reported only in the two bioclimatic sub-humid and semi-arid upper stages. Based on published data, in Algeria, Fusarium culmorum was reported as the dominate species associated to both diseases with F. pseudograminearum as the second causal agent; while in Tunisia, the same data were recorded for CR, but for FHB, the dominate species was Microdochium nivale followed by F. culmorum. In Morroco and Egypt, F. culmorum and Bipolaris sorokiniana were reported as majors species associated to CR. In addition Rhizoctonia oryzea was also associated to CR and F. graminearum to FHB in Egypt. Pathogenecity assessments have shown that in Algeria, F. culmorum was the most aggressive on the wheat seedlings and on the head, while F. pseudograminearum was the most aggressive on the crown. In Tunisia, F. culmorum and F. pseudograminearum were the most aggressive on the crown, and in Egypt F. culmorum was also the most aggressive.
This research is a bibliographic synthesis based on published data related to FHB and CR in Algeria and others Mediterranean countries.
Session topic: Invasive pathogens and new emerging plant diseases, Plant pathology and food safety
Houda Boureghda is a doctor of phytopathology, graduated in biological science from the University of Science and Technology Houari Boumediene – Algiers – Algeria. Then she obtained a magister’s degree and a doctorate in phytopathology at the Ecole Nationale Supérieure d’Agronomie -El Harrach-Algiers Algeria where she started teaching before ended her magister thesis. Her PhD thesis was about biological control of Fusarium wilt of chickpea using isolates of Trichoderma spp. when jointly she has done short scientific visit stay at the laboratory of biological control of the University Federico II, Napoli, Italy and also at the Univeristé Catholique de Louvain – Louvain La Neuve- Belgium. After her PhD she has done a short visit stay at the university Federico II, Napoli, Italy to learn techniques’ of study of secondary metabolites of Trichoderma and at INRA Bordeaux France on toxigenous Fusarium molecular identification.
Her main research focuses on the biological control of fungal plants diseases by the use of Trichoderma induding also isolation and characterization of Trichoderma from Algerian soil. She is also concerned by Fungal disease associated with Fusarium mainly Fusarium head blight and crown rot of wheat in Algeria. She has been involved in national and international research project and currently she is conducting a project entitled Investigation of anagonistic agents against some crop pests: Characterization and evaluation of their effectiveness.
Currently she divides her work time between teaching scientific research and supervising master and Phd thesis.